Feasibility of Optical Coherence Tomography in Children with Kawasaki Disease and Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients
Background—Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution intravascular imaging technique used in adults. We tested the hypothesis that OCT could identify coronary abnormalities not seen by angiography in children with a history of Kawasaki Disease (KD) and pediatric heart transplant (TX) recipients.
Methods and Results—KD patients and TX recipients were evaluated between December 2012 and October 2013 with angiography and OCT (Ilumien System, LightLabs, St Jude Medical, Westford, MA). Modifications were made to the adult OCT protocol to adapt this technique for children. Serial cross sectional area (CSA) measurements of the lumen, intima and media were made. Entire imaging data was analyzed for the presence of qualitative changes. Seventeen children were evaluated (5 KD patients; 12 TX recipients). In KD patients angiography was normal. However, OCT imaging revealed that significant vessel wall abnormalities were present in all children including intimal thickening (intima/lumen CSA ratio > 0.4), loss of the normal layered structure of the vessel wall, white thrombus, calcification and neovascularization. There was extensive destruction of the internal elastic lamina. In TX recipients angiography was normal; however, intimal thickening [intima/media (I/M) CSA ratio >1] was seen in 9/12 patients. The median I/M CSA ratio was 1.18.
Conclusions—In this initial experience with OCT in children, we have identified significant coronary abnormalities with OCT that are angiographically silent in children with a history of coronary aneurysms due to KD and in pediatric TX recipients.
- Received December 18, 2013.
- Accepted May 19, 2014.