In Vivo Molecular Imaging of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis Using a Fibrin-Binding Positron Emission Tomographic ProbeCLINICAL PERSPECTIVE
Background—Fibrin is a major component of arterial and venous thrombi and represents an ideal candidate for molecular imaging of thrombosis. Here, we describe imaging properties and target uptake of a new fibrin-specific positron emission tomographic probe for thrombus detection and therapy monitoring in 2 rat thrombosis models.
Methods and Results—The fibrin-binding probe FBP7 was synthesized by conjugation of a known short cyclic peptide to a cross-bridged chelator (CB-TE2A), followed by labeling with copper-64. Adult male Wistar rats (n=26) underwent either carotid crush injury (mural thrombosis model) or embolic stroke (occlusive thrombosis model) followed by recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator treatment (10 mg/kg, IV). FBP7 detected thrombus location in both animal models with a high positron emission tomographic target-to-background ratio that increased over time (>5-fold at 30–90 minutes, >15-fold at 240–285 minutes). In the carotid crush injury animals, biodistribution analysis confirmed high probe uptake in the thrombotic artery (≈0.5%ID/g; >5-fold greater than blood and other tissues of the head and thorax). Similar results were obtained from ex vivo autoradiography of the ipsilateral versus contralateral carotid arteries. In embolic stroke animals, positron emission tomographic–computed tomographic imaging localized the clot in the internal carotid/middle cerebral artery segment of all rats. Time-dependent reduction of activity at the level of the thrombus was detected in recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator–treated rats but not in vehicle-injected animals. Brain autoradiography confirmed clot dissolution in recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator–treated animals, but enduring high thrombus activity in control rats.
Conclusions—We demonstrated that FBP7 is suitable for molecular imaging of thrombosis and thrombolysis in vivo and represents a promising candidate for bench-to-bedside translation.
- Received December 11, 2013.
- Accepted April 24, 2014.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.