Left Atrial Passive Emptying Function Determined by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Predicts Atrial Fibrillation Recurrence After Pulmonary Vein IsolationCLINICAL PERSPECTIVE
Background—Although pulmonary vein isolation has become a mainstream therapy for selected patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), late recurrent AF is common and its risk factors remain poorly defined. The purpose of our study was to test the hypothesis that reduced left atrial passive emptying function (LAPEF) as determined by cardiac magnetic resonance has a strong association with late recurrent AF after pulmonary vein isolation.
Methods and Results—Three hundred forty-six patients with AF referred for cardiac magnetic resonance pulmonary vein mapping before pulmonary vein isolation were included. Maximum LA volumes (VOLmax) and volumes before atrial contraction (VOLbac) were measured; LAPEF was calculated as (VOLmax−VOLbac)/VOLmax×100. Kaplan–Meier curves were constructed to determine late recurrent AF stratified by LAPEF quintile. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to adjust for known markers of recurrence. During a median follow-up of 27 months, 124 patients (35.8%) experienced late recurrent AF. Patients with recurrence were more likely to have nonparoxysmal AF (75.8% versus 51.4%; P<0.01), higher mean VOLmax (60.2 versus 52.8 mL/m2; P<0.01), and lower mean LAPEF (19.1% versus 26.0%; P<0.01). Patients in the lowest LAPEF quintile were at highest risk of developing recurrent AF (2-year recurrence for lowest versus highest: 60.5% versus 17.3%; P<0.01). After adjusting for known predictors of recurrence, patients with low LAPEF remained significantly more likely to recur (hazard ratio for lowest versus highest quintile, 3.92; 95% confidence interval, 2.01–7.65).
Conclusions—We found a strong association between LAPEF and recurrent AF after pulmonary vein isolation that persisted after multivariable adjustment.
- Received November 21, 2013.
- Accepted June 1, 2014.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.