Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging of Skin Changes in Arteriovenous Malformation
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- arteriovenous malformations
- empirical mode decomposition
- laser speckle contrast imaging
- multiresolution analysis
A 7-month-old child had an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) manifesting with redness of the skin of her left upper arm and shoulder (Figure). The diagnosis had been confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging performed under general anesthesia with a 3-T whole-body MR scanner (MAGNETOM Skyra; Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany; Figure). Axial fat-suppressed gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted image in the coronal plane demonstrated a soft-tissue AVM characterized by direct fistulous and plexiform connections between arteries and veins without parenchymal staining. Tubular flow voids indicated high flow velocity within enlarged vascular channels. No surrounding soft-tissue signal abnormality or mass effect was observed.
Ultrasound duplex sonography (US) showed, …