Age- and Sex-Related Influences on Left Ventricular Mechanics in Elderly Individuals Free of Prevalent Heart FailureCLINICAL PERSPECTIVE
The ARIC Study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities)
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Background—Advanced age is related to left ventricular (LV) remodeling. We sought to investigate the relationships between aging, elevated hemodynamic load, cardiac mechanics, and LV remodeling in an elderly community-based population.
Methods and Results—We studied 1105 subjects (76±5 years, 61% women) without prevalent heart failure, who attended the visit 5 of the ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities). LV global longitudinal strain, global circumferential strain, and torsion indices were analyzed using 3-dimensional echocardiography. Advanced age was associated with greater LV concentricity, lower myocardial diastolic relaxation, reduced global longitudinal strain (adjusted estimate, 0.39±0.19% (SE)/decade; P=0.038), borderline greater global circumferential strain (adjusted estimate, −0.59±0.36% (SE)/decade; P=0.08), and higher torsion indices (adjusted estimate for torsion, 0.33±0.04° (SE)/decade; P<0.001). In addition, greater concentricity was associated with decreased global longitudinal strain and greater torsion in multivariable models (all P<0.001). Women showed smaller LV cavity size, greater concentricity, lower myocardial relaxation velocity E′, though demonstrated greater global longitudinal strain, global circumferential strain, and torsion than men (all P<0.05). Overall, subjects with hypertension and increasing age were more likely to have higher torsion, though the association between advanced age and greater torsion was more pronounced in women than in men (both interaction P<0.05).
Conclusions—In an asymptomatic, senescent community–dwelling population, we observed a distinct, sex-specific pattern of cardiac remodeling. Although we observed worse diastolic and longitudinal function with advanced age or elevated load in both sexes, a significant increase of torsion was more pronounced in women.
- Received April 13, 2016.
- Accepted October 18, 2016.
- © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.